By J.-C. G. Bünzli, Vitalij K. Pecharsky
The infrequent earths characterize a gaggle of chemical elements, the lanthanides, including scandium and yttrium, which express related chemical properties. they're strategically vital to built and constructing international locations as they've got a wide selection of purposes in catalysis, the safety undefined, aerospace, the fabrics and existence sciences and in sustainable power technologies.
The instruction manual at the Physics and Chemistry of the infrequent Earths is a continuing authoritative sequence that offers with the science and know-how of the infrequent earth components in an built-in demeanour. each one bankruptcy is a complete, up to date, serious evaluation of a selected phase of the sphere. The paintings deals the researcher and graduate pupil an entire and thorough assurance of this attention-grabbing box.
* person chapters are entire, extensive, serious reviews
* Contributions are written via hugely skilled, invited experts
* supplies an up to date review of advancements within the field
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Extra info for Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 43: Including Actinides
When the mesophase only appears on cooling a material below its melting point, and is therefore metastable (in fact, thermodynamically less stable than the crystalline phase), the mesophase is termed monotropic. One and the same compound can exhibit both enantiotropic and monotropic mesophases. For example, it is possible to have an enantiotropic nematic phase with an accompanying, monotropic smectic A phase. The liquid-crystalline order can sometimes be frozen into a glassy solid state, by cooling the liquid-crystalline phase very rapidly, thus preventing the formation of nucleation sites to initiate crystallization.
1. Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM) Mesophases can be identified by studying the characteristic pattern (textures, also called defect textures) that are observed when a thin film of a LC is placed between the crossed polarizers of a POM. This method is based on the optical anisotropy and birefringence of LCs. Most LCs are optically uniaxial materials, with the optical axis being defined by the director. An optically anisotropic material is able to change the polarization state of light. Unpolarized light contains both x-polarized and y-polarized electric field components (Fig.
The terms “mesogenic” and “mesomorphic” are often used as synonyms, but strictly spoken, they are not. A mesogenic compound has all the structural characteristics that are required to form a mesophase, but when a mesogenic compound is heated, it does not necessarily form a mesophase. The term “mesogenic” tells something about the shape of the molecule, but nothing about the thermal behavior. Mesomorphic compounds have the shape required for the formation of a mesophase and effectively exhibit a mesophase.
Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 43: Including Actinides by J.-C. G. Bünzli, Vitalij K. Pecharsky