By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Clouds have an effect on the weather of the Earth, and they're an incredible consider the elements. for this reason, their radiative houses needs to be understood in nice aspect. This publication summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical houses, for instance their skill to soak up, transmit, and replicate mild, which is dependent upon the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical features akin to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and buildings. furthermore, difficulties with regards to the picture move via clouds and cloud distant sensing are addressed during this e-book in nice detail.
This ebook should be an immense resource of knowledge on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers.
All easy principles of optics as regarding scattering of sunshine in clouds (e.g. Mie thought and radiative move) are thought of in a self constant approach. for this reason, the publication is additionally an invaluable textbook to newbies to the field.
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Additional info for Cloud Optics
22. These data were obtained using radar observations. We see Ci clouds around 8 km height, Cu—below 2 km and also middle-level clouds at Fig. 22. , 2004). MICROPHYSICS AND GEOMETRY OF CLOUDS 31 4–6 km height. Most probably mixed-phase clouds also exist in the picture shown. This figure makes it easy to understand the complexity associated with calculations of light fields transmitted and reflected by cloud systems (Marshak and Davies, 2005). , in operational cloud remote sensing) assume homogeneous cloud layers.
This is often used in studies of light scattering by nonspherical particles. We, however, would like to consider now the much more simpler problem of light scattering by a sphere. Then Eqs. 9) can be transformed into a single wave equation, which can be solved analytically in terms of special functions. Note that Eq. 10) follows from Eqs. 9), assuming that ε does not depend on spatial coordinates. The permittivity ε ε = m 2 , m = n − iχ is the refractive index depends on the frequency ω. This frequency dependence is determined by the electronic structure of a given substance and is the subject of quantum mechanics.
Let us find the solution of Eq. 15) now. For this we follow the standard procedure. Namely, because the scatterer has a spherical shape, we write this equation in spherical coordinates: 1 ∂ r 2 ∂r r2 ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂ 2 r sin θ ∂θ sin θ ∂ ∂θ + 1 ∂2 + k2m2 r 2 sin θ ∂ϕ = 0. 22) This insures an easy application of the boundary conditions at a later stage of derivations. We represent the solution of Eq. 22) as (r, θ, ϕ) = A(r )B(θ )C(ϕ). 23) The substitution of Eq. 23) into Eq. 22) gives: sin2 θ 1 ∂ A ∂r r2 ∂A ∂r + sin θ 1 ∂ B ∂θ sin θ ∂B ∂θ + k 2 m 2r 2 sin2 θ = − 1 ∂ 2C .
Cloud Optics by Alexander A. Kokhanovsky