Read e-book online Climatology PDF

February 2, 2018 | Climatology | By admin | 0 Comments

By John E. Oliver (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0387307494

ISBN-13: 9780387307497

ISBN-10: 0879330090

ISBN-13: 9780879330095

Today's higher public wisdom of ways weather impacts our caliber of existence and atmosphere has created an expanding call for for climatological details. Now this data comes in one handy, obtainable resource, The Encyclopedia of Climatology. This accomplished quantity covers the entire major subfields of climatology, provides facts on climates in significant continental parts and explains what's identified concerning the reasons of climatic methods and adjustments. Contents contain articles on bioclimatology, El Niño, climatic versions, international local climates, civilization and weather, climatic adaptations and the greenhouse effect.

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The transition from a hunting to an agricultural society, often called the Neo- 18 PERSPECTIVES lithic or “new stone age”, occurred several thousand years later in the tem­ perate zones of northern America and Europe. g. in connection with buildings and monuments), as well as the harvest of solar energy through agricultural crops. It is not known exactly how much of the physical work was performed by men and how much by animals, but it is likely that another 100–200 W was added to the average en­ ergy usage per capita in the most developed regions.

As shown in Fig. 1, regular oscillations around this figure are produced by the changes in the Earth–Sun distance, as the Earth progresses in its elliptical orbit around the Sun. 7%. 1 SOLAR RADIATION 29 CHAPTER 2 Sun’s rotation (about one revolution per month), and by possible timevaria­ tions in the surface luminosity of the Sun. 1. Yearly variations in the “solar constant” (the head-on solar radiation flux at the Earth’s distance; NASA, 1971). 1 Energy production in the interior of stars like the Sun The energy produced by nuclear reactions in the interior of the Sun must equal the amount of energy radiated from the surface, since otherwise the Sun could not have been structurally stable over long periods of time.

Solid line: measured values (smoothed out over absorption lines, based on NASA, 1971). Dashed line: Planck law corresponding to an effective temperature of 5762 K, normalised to the experimental curve. Above the photosphere is a less dense gas with temperature increasing outwards from the minimum of about 4300 K. During eclipses, the glow of this chromosphere is visible as red light. This is because of the intense Hα line in the chromospheric system, consisting primarily of emission lines. After the chromosphere comes the corona, still less dense (of the order of 10−11 kg m−3 even close to the Sun), but of very high temperature (2 × 106 K, cf.

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Climatology by John E. Oliver (auth.)


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