New PDF release: Climate: Present, Past and Future: Volume 1: Fundamentals

February 2, 2018 | Climatology | By admin | 0 Comments

By Hubert H. Lamb

ISBN-10: 0415679508

ISBN-13: 9780415679503

First released in 1972, this primary quantity of Professor Lamb’s examine of our altering weather bargains with the basics of weather and climatology, in addition to delivering international information at the modern climates of the 20th century.

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Extra info for Climate: Present, Past and Future: Volume 1: Fundamentals and Climate Now

Example text

Heat reaches, and is lost from, the surface of the Earth and all points within the atmosphere, by radiation, convection and conduction. Some surfaces reflect back and waste much of the radiation falling on them. ) Well aerated, dry soil or sands and (most of 1. The thermal conductivities in g cal/cm 2/sec for a temperature gradient of I°C/cm depth of different substances and surfaces are given by ALISSOW et al. (1956, pp. 226-8) as: Air Snow VVarer Dry sand or soils Turf 14 0·00005 Mostly 0·0003-0·0005, but less or more than these limits if the snow be either very loose (porous) or wet/hard-packed respectively 0·00124 0·0020 0·0021 Radiation and the Earth's heat supply alI) loose, new-fallen snow are bad conductors of heat, so that the surface is exposed to the full impact of radiation, mitigated almost only by convective heat transfer in the air above.

I's 44 4n S T E FAN - B 0 L TZMANN T Z MAN N constant, es measures the where Rs is the radius of the sun, k is the STE F AN -BOL effectiveness of the sun as a radiator of heat in comparison with a black body and Ts I's is the effective radiating surface temperature of the sun. This last must in reality be a complex entity to which the very different temperatures of various outer layers of the sun contribute. • surface of area 4n So I the intensity of the solar beam per cm 22 at the distance of the Earth is given by Rs2 4 R/ kesI's ke T4 1=-2' 1= d2.

The average period interval between the 1907 and 1957 maxima, over cycles that were mostly vigorous and some very vigorous, was just 10 years. , when there were, or are believed to have been, some vigorous cycles, contrasting with an average interval of 11· 3-11· 9 years in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. 1. Professor Dr G. RICHTER-BERNBURG of the Niedersachsisches Landesamt, Hannover and Professor T. S. WESTOLL of Durham University, reported this periodicity in varved evaporites of the Permian geological epoch in Germany and in various other samples back to the Pre-Cambrian, over 500 million years ago, at the NATO Advanced Studies Institute's Conference on Palaeoclimates at Newcastle, January 1963.

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Climate: Present, Past and Future: Volume 1: Fundamentals and Climate Now by Hubert H. Lamb

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