By Pak Sum Low
In the beginning of the twenty-first century, no environmental factor is of such actually international importance because the factor of weather switch. The poorer, constructing nations are the least built to evolve to the aptitude results of weather switch, even supposing such a lot of them have performed a trifling position in inflicting it. African international locations are among the poorest of the constructing nations. This publication provides the problems of such a lot relevance to Africa, reminiscent of earlier and current weather, desertification, biomass burning and its implications for atmospheric chemistry and weather, strength iteration, sea-level upward push, ENSO-induced drought and flood, model, catastrophe danger aid, the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol (especially the fresh improvement Mechanism), capacity-building, and sustainable improvement. It offers a entire and up to date overview of those and lots of different matters, with chapters by means of the prime specialists from more than a few disciplines. weather switch and Africa will turn out to be a useful reference for all researchers and coverage makers with an curiosity in weather swap and Africa.
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Additional info for Climate Change and Africa
It underlines the progress that the African scientific community has made in environmental and climate research and its readiness to provide input and advice to the policy-making process. The editor, Pak Sum Low, who has a long-standing interest in environmental research, and his authors are to be commended for putting together this fine volume. Dieter H. Ehhalt Institute for Atmospheric Chemistry J¨ulich, Germany Preface by Godwin O. P. Obasi The climatic variations of the past, except probably the recent glacier retreat, have been essentially natural, with little or no human influence.
It is also now clear that the substantial increase in disasters over recent decades has been mostly due to changes in socio- xxxii economic factors, such as population increases in high-risk areas and land degradation, rather than to changes in climate, though some observed changes in climate, such as the relatively greater and stronger El Ni˜no episodes over the last 30 years, will have exacerbated disaster situations in affected countries. The prospects of increased weather hazards for the future reported by the IPCC are of very great concern, and add even more urgency to the pressing immediate need to reduce vulnerabilities and to better manage existing climate variability and extremes.
1994) support pollen evidence of grassland expansion during the LGM. 1). , 1990; Roche and Bikwemu, 1989), Lake Tanganyika (Vincens, 1989a, 1989b). Early estimates of pollen-inferred temperature depression, relative to present, were as follows: Muchoya Swamp, 5–8 ◦ C (Morrison, 1968); Mount Kenya, 7 ◦ C (Coetzee, 1967); and north basin of Lake Tanganyika, 5–6 ◦ C (Vincens, 1989a). More recently, Bonnefille et al. 2). They derived, for the last glacial period, a temperature decrease of 4 ◦ C ± 2 ◦ C, which is slightly lower than previously inferred values, and a simultaneous 30% decrease in mean annual rainfall, which is in broad agreement with the concomitant lake level declines in the East African region.
Climate Change and Africa by Pak Sum Low