By I. Hamerton (auth.), Ian Hamerton (eds.)
After epoxy resins and polyimides, cyanate esters arguably shape the main well-developed workforce of high-temperature, thermosetting polymers. They own a few fascinating functionality features which cause them to of accelerating technological significance, the place their a little bit greater bills are applicable. The imperative finish makes use of for cyanate esters are as matrix resins for published wiring board laminates and structural composites. For the electronics markets, the low dielectric loss features, dimen sional balance at molten solder temperatures and perfect adhesion to conductor metals at temperatures as much as 250°C, are fascinating. of their use in aerospace composites, unmodified cyanate esters provide two times the frac ture durability of multifunctional epoxies, whereas attaining a provider tem perature intermediate among epoxy and bis-maleimide functions. purposes in radome development and plane with lowered radar signatures make the most of the surprisingly low capacitance houses of cyanate esters and linked low dissipation elements. whereas a few advertisement cyanate ester monomers and prepoly mers at the moment are on hand, to this point there was no accomplished evaluate of the chemistry and up to date technological functions of this flexible relations of resins. The goals of the current textual content are to provide those in a com pact, readable shape. The paintings is essentially aimed toward fabrics scientists and polymer technologists curious about study and improvement within the chemical, electronics, aerospace and adhesives industries. it's was hoping that complicated undergraduates and postgraduates in polymer chemistry and expertise, and fabrics science/technology will locate it an invaluable introduc tion and resource of reference during their studies.
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Extra resources for Chemistry and Technology of Cyanate Ester Resins
While the silicon tetracyanate was reported to be isolated many years ago , the alkyl and aryl silicon cyanates are apparently not stable enough for the polycyclotrimerization reaction. 17) . Aliphatic carborane cyanates are reported to be stable to isomerization at temperatures up to 80-130°C . This stabilization is attributed to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the carborane nucleus, which is transmitted through the methylene bridging group. 4 Hydrolysis Unlike isocyanates, aryl cyanates are stable to short-term contact with water at room temperature in the absence of catalysts.
3 Infrared spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy has been a very important tool for cyanate monomer identification, measurement of conversion to polymer and identification of hydrolysis products and impurities. The cyanate functional group is identified by a strong C=N stretching band at 2200-2300 cm- I and a strong C-O-C stretch at 1160-1240 cm- I . When organic cyanates were first discovered, this combination was instrumental in discriminating cyanates from isocyanates [54,55]. The C=N stretching band in cyanate monomers is of considerable importance since it is frequently used to quantify the conversion to prepolymer and fully cured polymer .
4% . 279 Z o (g/cm3) high. but the presence of polar functional groups has little effect. Caution should be exercised when associating molecular packing with attractive forces between cyanate functional groups. Crystal structures of additional cyanate monomers need to be determined, and the nature of the attractive forces between cyanate functional groups needs more study. 5 Melting point and melt viscosity For processing, monomers with low melting points and low melt viscosities are desirable.
Chemistry and Technology of Cyanate Ester Resins by I. Hamerton (auth.), Ian Hamerton (eds.)