By Alberto Melucci
Alberto Melucci brings an unique point of view to investigate on collective motion, emphasizing the function of tradition and making telling connections with the event of the person in postmodern society. the focal point is at the position of knowledge in a global either fragmented and globalized, and subject matters addressed contain political clash, feminism, ecology, identification politics, energy and inequality. The e-book builds at the author's Nomads of the current (1989), and is a spouse quantity to The taking part in Self (CUP, 1996).
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Extra info for Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age
Other kinds of collective action have order-maintaining orientations, in that their effects remain within the limits of structural variability of the given system of social relations. A simple breach of the compatibility limits of the reference system is not enough for an action to signify social conflict: it merely signals the disruptive character of the action. A breach of the rules or the rejection of the shared norms do not necessarily imply a struggle between two actors over something at stake, but is instead symptomatic of deviant behaviour: here the actor is defined by marginality with respect to a system of norms, reacting to the control that such norms exercise without nevertheless challenging their legitimacy - without, that is, identifying a social adversary and a set of contested resources or values.
Principles for analysis of collective action Analysis must distinguish between a reaction to a crisis and the expression of a conflict. As stated, the appearance of collective action has often been linked to a crisis in one sector of the system or the another, the crisis denoting breakdown of the functional and integrative mechanisms of a given set of social relations. Collective action has thus been often viewed as a pathology of the social system. A conflict, on the other hand, is defined by a struggle between two actors seeking to appropriate resources regarded by each as valuable.
We can discriminate between sets of basic orientations of collective action that are helpful in establishing analytical distinctions among various kinds of behaviour. They are as follows: 1 Some collective phenomena involve solidarity, that is, the ability of actors to recognize others, and to be recognized, as belonging to the same social unit. In other cases, collective action arises as an aggregation of atomized behaviours (Alberoni 1984). This latter orientation I will designate as aggregation: (a) Aggregative orientations do not involve solidarity and they only express spatio-temporal contiguity; (b) they can be broken down to the level of the individual without the loss of their morphological features; and (c) they are wholly oriented towards the outside rather than towards the group.
Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age by Alberto Melucci