By Professor Dr. Davide Schiffer, Professor Dr. Maria Teresa Giordana, Dr. Alessandro Mauro, Dr. Riccardo Soffietti (auth.)
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Extra info for Brain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical References
This gene, which has a limited homology with the c-myc oncogene, is present in single copies in normal adult cells, while in neuroblastoma cells it is possible to identify up to hundreds of thousands of copies. In 24 out of 63 (38%) neuroblastomas studied, N-myc was amplified from three to 300 times . Moreover, a significant correlation between the aggressiveness and prognosis of neuroblastoma and the level of amplification of N-myc was demonstrated, in the sense that amplification is frequently associated with more undifferentiated tumors and a worse prognosis.
Pinealoblastoma is the second brain tumor that may be associated with inherited retinoblastoma in so-called trilateral retinoblastoma , suggesting a possible common origin from RBI gene inactivation. In agreement with this hypothesis, experimental data have shown that mice harboring inactivation of RBI and p53 genes develop pinealoblastomas in 40% of cases . Following the isolation of the RbI gene, at least 11 other tumor suppressor genes were identified, and some general observations can now be made about this group of genes [1782, 1931,3217].
In undifferentiated, mitotically active neuroepithelial cells) of the mouse dorsal thalamus . The expression patterns of all these regulatory genes suggest a neuromeric organization of the embryonic forebrain, similar to that described for rhombencephalon . Gtx, a homeobox gene with a sequence divergent from the Hox class genes, shows a different expression pattern. It is expressed more abundantly in the mouse adult brain than in fetal or neonatal brain, and its expression in adult CNS seems specifically restricted to glial cells .
Brain Tumors: Biology, Pathology and Clinical References by Professor Dr. Davide Schiffer, Professor Dr. Maria Teresa Giordana, Dr. Alessandro Mauro, Dr. Riccardo Soffietti (auth.)