By Prasad Lakshmi G.
Brachial plexus accidents (BPI) are the main serious nerve accidents of the higher extremity which leads to marked useful impairment. Trauma as a result of highway site visitors injuries is the commonest aetiology. and center elderly men are most typically affected. prognosis is especially through medical exam whereas electrophysiological experiences purely make certain the prognosis and supply information about the variety of roots concerned and the kind of damage. Imaging within the type of CT myelography or MRI is especially priceless to appear for proof of root avulsions which necessitate early therapy. in most cases, surgeries are indicated, if no spontaneous restoration is visible inside of three months of harm. quite a few recommendations can be found which come with direct nerve fix, nerve grafting and nerve transfers. end result is determined by the severity of harm. Good-to very good results may be anticipated in partial plexal accidents whereas international accidents have constantly bad effects world wide.
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Additional info for Brachial Plexus Injuries in the Adult
Brachial neuritis (Parsonage-Turner syndrome) is a syndrome characterized by shoulder girdle weakness and pain of acute onset. The cause of the disorder is not known, but antecedent viral or other infections are commonly identiﬁed in suﬀerers. MRI may show increased T2 signal in the nerves and edema and even atrophy in the muscles of the shoulder girdle, but without discrete nerve thickening or masses [4,28]. Soft tissue edema may be present around the plexus as a sign of inﬂammation. The imaging ﬁndings of brachial neuritis are, however, nonspeciﬁc, and the diagnosis is primarily one of exclusion.
Overstimulation: stimulate wrong nerve 3. Stimulus artifact, obscures response 4. Peripheral ischemia (tourniquet), must wait minimum of 30 min after tourniquet released CMAP: surface, subcutaneous, or intramuscular electrode NAP: subcutaneous or direct with probe, hook, or plate electrodes SEP: surface or subdermal needle electrodes over cervical spine and contralateral scalp (C30 or C40 –Fz, C30 –C40 ) Filters: 30–1000 or 2000 Hz Average: 0–50 traces (NAP and SEP) 1. Electrical noise: microscope, blood warmer, cautery, poor grounding 2.
Neuroradiology 1992;34(3):235–40.  Vielvoye GJ, Hoﬀmann CF. Neuroradiological investigations in cervical root avulsion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;95(Suppl):S36–8.  Francel PC, Koby M, Park TS, et al. Fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging for radiological assessment of neonatal brachial plexus injury. J Neurosurg 1995;83(3):461–6.  Ochi M, Ikuta Y, Watanabe M, Kimori K, Itoh K. The diagnostic value of MRI in traumatic brachial plexus injury. J Hand Surg [Br] 1994;19(1):55–9.  Gupta RK, Mehta VS, Banerji AK, Jain RK.
Brachial Plexus Injuries in the Adult by Prasad Lakshmi G.