By Peter Gottschalk
Wondering the traditional depiction of India as a country divided among spiritual groups, Gottschalk indicates that people dwelling in India have a number of identities, a few of which lower throughout non secular limitations. The tales narrated via villagers dwelling within the northern kingdom of Bihar depict daily social interactions that go beyond the straightforward divide of Hindu and Muslim.
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Extra resources for Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India
Lorenzen, Kabir Legends and Ananta-das’s Kabir Parachai. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 18. 40. Hess, p. 42. 41. Nirmal Dass, trans. Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 155. Multiple Identities, Singular Representations 21 through heartfelt devotion. The experience of this inner existential reality demonstrated the insignificance of external religious association. Kabir says, plunge into Ram! There: no Hindu. 42 Further, Kabir used his typically outrageous language aggressively to kick out the very props by which some “Hindus” and “Turks” sought to set up their platform of exclusivist truth claims, whether texts, beliefs, or practices.
McLeod, eds. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987, pp. 305–328. 47. W. H. McLeod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996 (1968), pp. 158, 161. 48. A Hindu renunciant who lives an ascetic life in pursuit of release from the cycle of rebirth. 49. Van der Veer, pp. 45–46. 50. , p. 50. 51. , p. 25. For an in-depth examination of these efforts in Banaras, see Vasudha Dalmia. The Nationalization of Hindu Traditions: Bharatendu Hari:chandra and Nineteenth-Century Banaras. Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Religious Self-Identification and Exclusion in Historical South Asia Unfortunately, the history of South Asian religious identities and community interrelations suffers for lack of historiographic sources for the period preceding European imperialism. The sources available generally describe large, elite institutions rather than local, popular expressions. For this reason, most scholars attempting to explore precolonial and early colonial religiosity commonly turn to the records of governments (such as official reports or unofficial memoirs) or organizations (such as Sufi brotherhoods or sadhu orders) and attempt the difficult task of discerning broader religious sentiment.
Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India by Peter Gottschalk