Download e-book for kindle: Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre by Geoffrey Russom

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By Geoffrey Russom

ISBN-10: 0521593409

ISBN-13: 9780521593403

It is a transparent and obtainable account of early Germanic alliterative verse that explains how such verse was once taken care of by way of the Beowulf poet. There are changes of poetic sort among Beowulf and the another way related verse of historical Scandinavia and continental Europe. Such differences have intrigued students for over a century, yet Russom is the 1st to supply a scientific clarification of previous English, previous Norse, previous Saxon and outdated excessive German alliterative meters. Russom's effects should still curiosity students of outdated English and similar Germanic languages, in addition to linguists and people eager about poetic meter.

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Vowels also underwent shortening in function words that became enclitic to a stressed word. Thus the final vowel in ON pu 'thou' lost its length (and distinctive height) in vi/do 'thou wilt'. The initial consonant of pu was affected by enclisis as well, becoming d by the usual word-level rule for the sequence Ip. 23 In forms like vantattu 'you did not hinder', word­ final pu assimilated to the precedi ng negative enclitic form -at-. Since word-level rules express the native speaker's intuitive concept of word­ hood, forms like vi/do and vantattu are best regarded as single words in which enclitics have the status of secondary affixes or inflectional endings.

Metrical subordination of non-alliterating words is of course expected in a metrical system with a fundamental principle like P3, which links the alliterative patterns of the verse and line to linguistic subordination in compounds. In (5), the foot boundary falls between subject and predicate. 41 Because both stress and syntax indicate the subordinate status of the verse-final word, the poet does not need a second alliterating syllable in (5). L I GHT FE E T I n Norse poetry, the x foot appears most often Sievers as type C: (6) (7) 10 verses classified by ne I upphiminn42 {x/Ssx] oc I t61 goroo4 3 [x/Ssx} (Vsp 3/6) (Vsp 7/8) 38 'Harald War-tooth .

The S/Sxs scansion presupposes, with Sievers and Kuhn, that an alliterating main verb always occupies an arsis, though some metrists would disagree. I take up this issue in eh. 9. 2. ' 43 'and they made tools'. 42 'nor heaven above . ' . 19 on Mon Sep 02 17:37:18 WEST 2013. 44 Sievers's analysis of type C as an iamb followed by a trochee, on the other hand, seems particularly i nappropriate for Eddie metre, since it has no two-word manifestations. In (7), the word group to/ goroo conforms well to the Ssx foot pattern.

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Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre by Geoffrey Russom


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