By James Barry
The objective of this monograph is to study the recognized actual features of 2 strange varieties of atmospheric luminous phenomena, to infer their features and houses, and to advertise efforts to enhance their realizing. those types, known as ball lightning and bead lightning, have visible pictures that fluctuate from the linear photograph linked to normallightning. The phrases "balliightning" and "bead lightning" are used to indicate atmospheric luminous types that are sometimes saw and feature the geometrie form prompt by way of their identify. Vet, it truly is attainable that neither phenomenon may well in truth be a kind of lightning within the feel of a continual electric discharge. Bead lightning has been defined because the residue of a cloud-to cloud or cloud-to-ground lightning stroke and has the looks of aseries of luminous balls separated via darkish areas, therefore comparable to astring of pearls, and is still noticeable for roughly one moment. Ball lightning has been defined as a unmarried luminous globe showing ne ar the floor after a lightning stroke and likewise ultimate obvious for roughly one moment. either phenomena stay seen some distance longer than basic lightning flashes.
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Extra info for Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity
The magnetic field lines about a linear current form concentric circles in a plane perpendicular to the line current. 1) where u is the electron velocity, m is the electron mass, eis the electron charge, v is the electron collison frequency with particles in the medium, and E and Bare the electron and magnetic field intensities. The u x B force is directed inward in the radial - r direction and can cause inward electron motion, the pinch. A formal relationship may be deduced with the aid of Maxwell's equations and the definition of the current, J = Neu, where N is the electron density.
Mass spectrometer analysis was used to determine the gas species and concentrations. It was found that the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides, which were assumed to be N02 , were much higher than in normal air. The values cannot be used to form a strictly valid model, as such gases are also formed during normal lightning discharges.
The photographs are critically evaluated in Chapter 6. A major factor in the difficulty of evaluating such photographs is the means used to record the phenomena. Single-frame camera photographs can easily be misinterpreted because of the small amount of information available in a single photograph. The preferred manner for the recording of a possible bead lightning event is with fast-filmrate movie cameras and simultaneous observers. 14. Photograph of a bead-lightning-like discharge channel produced with a large Tesla coil at a potential of about 2 x 10 7 V with a discharge energy of about 12 J per pulse.
Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity by James Barry