By J. F. P. Galvin
What will we suggest by means of the tropics? the elements and the climates it produces around the tropical region are considerably varied from these skilled by way of the folks dwelling in better latitudes, so forecasters throughout Europe and masses of North the United States are strange with its results. during this booklet, Jim Galvin demystifies the subject during this quarter that's more and more of curiosity to these learning climate and weather. This e-book used to be written for climate forecasters, meteorology, environmental technology and geography scholars as an introductory advisor. It builds at the event of the writer, his specialist adventure on the earth region Forecast Centre on the Met place of work, Exeter, utilizing reports into the elements and weather obvious in the tropical air mass performed over decades. Its special approach offers a pragmatic method of tropical climate reports, drawing on either educational and useful wisdom, masking air mass dynamics, seasonal alterations, wet and dry climate, weather variability and human future health in chapters and appendices that increase the final photograph, summarising our present country of data. As an summary, it covers the large variety of results attached with weather and climate in a simple approach and is obviously illustrated all through.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics
4. 6 MCS development over the Gulf of Guinea at 1200 UTC on 15 March 2013. Surface winds (not shown) indicated that there was an incursion of south-westerly winds originating in a small area of high pressure near 4°S, 3°E. Development was within a shallow mid-tropospheric depression and cloud tops reached more than 13 km (pink tones) over sea-surface temperatures above 29°C. Returns in near-real time from the Met Office sferics ATD lightning-detection system are shown as red (within the last 10 minutes) and yellow (older returns, up to 30 minutes previous) crosses.
Unless the base of a cumulonimbus cloud is higher than about 2500 m above ground level heavy precipitation can be expected from this cloud. This is the only type of cloud that produces hail, thunder and lightning. The rapidly rising currents within this cloud often produces severe turbulence and its density brings a high risk of severe icing. 13 Stratocumulus stratiformis over Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Although also seen as a bi-product of convection, this cloud is mainly found in windy weather over and near the cool-ocean areas on the western margins of continents under anti-cyclonic temperature inversions.
Precipitation commonly falls from this cloud type, but if the base is above 3000 m it will not reach the ground. 9 Altostratus, the somewhat amorphous layer above a layer of altocumulus, is comparatively rare in the tropics as it is characteristic of a moist and stable atmosphere. It is most often observed over parts of South-East Asia in winter (Chapter 8) or within upper-tropospheric troughs (Chapters 3 and 4), although here it is seen over the Bohol Sea, Philippines within the ITCZ. Slight to moderate rain may fall from this cloud if its base is below 3000 m.
An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics by J. F. P. Galvin