By Peter V. Hobbs
FROM THE PUBLISHERAerosol and clouds play vital roles in deciding upon the earth's weather, in ways in which we're merely starting to understand. along side molecular scattering from gases, aerosol and clouds make sure partially what fraction of sunlight radiation reaches the earth's floor, and what fraction of the longwave radiation from the earth escapes to house. This publication presents an summary of the newest learn on atmospheric aerosol and clouds and their results on international weather. topics reviewed contain the direct and oblique results of aerosol on weather, the radiative homes of clouds and their results at the Earth's radiation stability, the incorporation of cloud results in numerical climate prediction types, and stratospheric aerosol and clouds.
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Extra resources for Aerosol--cloud--climate interactions
22. These data were obtained using radar observations. We see Ci clouds around 8 km height, Cu—below 2 km and also middle-level clouds at Fig. 22. , 2004). MICROPHYSICS AND GEOMETRY OF CLOUDS 31 4–6 km height. Most probably mixed-phase clouds also exist in the picture shown. This figure makes it easy to understand the complexity associated with calculations of light fields transmitted and reflected by cloud systems (Marshak and Davies, 2005). , in operational cloud remote sensing) assume homogeneous cloud layers.
This is often used in studies of light scattering by nonspherical particles. We, however, would like to consider now the much more simpler problem of light scattering by a sphere. Then Eqs. 9) can be transformed into a single wave equation, which can be solved analytically in terms of special functions. Note that Eq. 10) follows from Eqs. 9), assuming that ε does not depend on spatial coordinates. The permittivity ε ε = m 2 , m = n − iχ is the refractive index depends on the frequency ω. This frequency dependence is determined by the electronic structure of a given substance and is the subject of quantum mechanics.
Let us find the solution of Eq. 15) now. For this we follow the standard procedure. Namely, because the scatterer has a spherical shape, we write this equation in spherical coordinates: 1 ∂ r 2 ∂r r2 ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂ 2 r sin θ ∂θ sin θ ∂ ∂θ + 1 ∂2 + k2m2 r 2 sin θ ∂ϕ = 0. 22) This insures an easy application of the boundary conditions at a later stage of derivations. We represent the solution of Eq. 22) as (r, θ, ϕ) = A(r )B(θ )C(ϕ). 23) The substitution of Eq. 23) into Eq. 22) gives: sin2 θ 1 ∂ A ∂r r2 ∂A ∂r + sin θ 1 ∂ B ∂θ sin θ ∂B ∂θ + k 2 m 2r 2 sin2 θ = − 1 ∂ 2C .
Aerosol--cloud--climate interactions by Peter V. Hobbs